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Research Skills: Start


An assignment may you require that you make footnotes to identify the sources you have referred to in your text.  Footnoting is also referred to as the Notation or Oxford style of in-text referencing. 

In this system a small superscript number is placed in the text to indicate the source of your information or ideas. Corresponding to this brief in-text notation is the full reference given at the "foot" of the page. A bibliography of all your sources is placed at the end of your report. Use Citemaker to create full citations in the APA 7th edition format. 

Checkout the video below to see how to footnote in under 2 minutes!

Video Transcript

0:00 Word processing software tools enable you to footnote easily. Your footnote should be placed at the end of a sentence, and follow any punctuation marks. In Word select "References" from the top tabs, then select "Insert footnote". The superscript number is inserted and Word quickly drops you down to the foot of the page.
0:27 At the foot or bottom of the same page, the same superscript number allows you to provide the full details of the source.
0:35 If you are frequently citing a particular work in your essay, give the full details of the work in your first footnote. In subsequent footnotes for this work, use the shortened format of: author surname, abbreviated title and the page number.
0:54 Direct quotes under 30 words included in the body of your essay are enclosed in single inverted commas, and followed immediately with a superscript number, that refers to a footnote at the bottom of your page
1:08 Your Bibliography should only includes items you have referenced in your assignment. They are listed on a separate page at the end of your assignment titled: Bibliography, and are arranged in Alphabetical order by author's surname, then a comma, then the first initial. The citation should follow the APA 7th Edition style which is the current format.

1:40  Please note that the footnote entries are arranged in a different order: the author's first initial comes first then a full stop and then the surname. Please observe this important convention of footnoting.



Citing the same reference multiple time? To ibid or not to ibid, that is the question?

It is not common practice to use Latin abbreviations such as ibid. or op. cit.

UNSW & Victoria University Library provide excellent guides on contemporary footnoting practices. Generally, if you are citing the same work multiple times you should give the full details of the work in your first footnote and then in subsequent footnotes use an abbreviated format. For example: author surname, abbreviated title (for example, no subtitle for a book or journal name only for a journal article), and the page number. 

If required to use the traditional method, University of Wollongong's guide shows you how to cite repeated references using ibid & opcit.